Python 使用 Postfix 发送邮件

最近在做一个监控程序,需要用邮件发送告警。以前是使用注册的免费邮来发送,但是这样不免有很多限制,而且有时还会当作恶意登录,帐号异常等,还不让登录邮箱了。利用Postfix提供邮件SMTP服务,可以很自由的发送邮件,任意定义发送者的邮箱地址。感觉都可以用来恶作剧,用别人的邮箱来发邮件呢。

安装 Postfix

如果是 Ubuntu,请使用

sudo apt-get install postfix

如果是 Centos,请使用

yum install postfix

接下来需要进行一些配置

选择Internet Site
这里选择Internet Site

设置FQDN
然后让设置FQDN,但是使用默认的机器名即可,这里不是很确定。

使用Python发送邮件

使用这里给出的完美例子

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#! /usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import smtplib
from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart
from email.mime.base import MIMEBase
from email.mime.text import MIMEText
from email.utils import COMMASPACE, formatdate
from email import Encoders
import os
def send_mail(mail_to, mail_from, subject, text, files, server="localhost"):
assert type(mail_to) == list
assert type(files) == list
msg = MIMEMultipart()
msg['From'] = mail_from
msg['To'] = COMMASPACE.join(mail_to)
msg['Date'] = formatdate(localtime=True)
msg['Subject'] = subject
# 如果 text 是html,则需要设置 _subtype='html'
# 默认情况下 _subtype='plain',即纯文本
# msg.attach(MIMEText(text, _subtype='html', _charset='utf-8'))
msg.attach(MIMEText(text, _charset='utf-8'))
for f in files:
part = MIMEBase('application', "octet-stream")
part.set_payload(open(f, "rb").read())
Encoders.encode_base64(part)
part.add_header('Content-Disposition', 'attachment; filename="%s"'
% os.path.basename(f))
msg.attach(part)
smtp = smtplib.SMTP(server)
smtp.sendmail(mail_from, mail_to, msg.as_string())
smtp.close()
if __name__ == '__main__':
# Example:
# 这里可以任意定制发送者的邮箱地址
send_mail(['your_name <your_name@gmail.com>'], 'MonitorBase <notify@monitor.base>', 'Hello Python!', 'Say hello to Python! :)', [])

最后把使用SMTP登录邮箱发送邮件的方法也附上

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#! /usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import smtplib
import time, traceback, sys, os
from email.mime.text import MIMEText
def send_mail(mail_from, password, mail_to, subject, content):
handle = smtplib.SMTP('smtp.163.com', 25)
handle.login(mail_from, password)
time_str = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %X', time.localtime(time.time()))
msg = '<html><body>' + content + "<br><br><span style='color:#999;font-size:"\
+ "10px;font-family:Verdana;'>" \
+ time_str + " by " + mail_from + "</span>"+'</body></html>'
send_msg = MIMEText(msg, 'html', 'utf-8')
send_msg['Subject'] = subject
handle.sendmail(mail_from, mail_to, send_msg.as_string())
handle.close()
if __name__ == '__main__':
send_mail('your_name@163.com', 'your_password', 'Hello Python!', 'Say hello to Python! :)')

如果要发送附件

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# created by restran on 2016/07/02
from __future__ import unicode_literals, absolute_import, print_function
import os
import smtplib
from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart
from email.mime.text import MIMEText
from email.utils import COMMASPACE, formatdate
from future.utils import PY2, PY3
class EmailHandler(object):
def __init__(self, mail_from, password, smtp_server, smtp_port=25):
"""
:param mail_from: 发件人
:param password: 发件人密码
:param smtp_server: SMTP服务器地址
:param smtp_port: SMTP服务器端口,SSL 方式是 465
:return:
"""
self.mail_from = mail_from
self.password = password
self.smtp_server = smtp_server
self.smtp_port = smtp_port
def send_mail_ssl(self, mail_to_list, subject, content, file_name_list):
self.do_send_mail(True, mail_to_list, subject, content, file_name_list)
def send_mail(self, mail_to_list, subject, content, file_name_list):
self.do_send_mail(False, mail_to_list, subject, content, file_name_list)
def do_send_mail(self, is_ssl, mail_to_list, subject, content, file_name_list):
"""
发送邮件
:param is_ssl: 使用SSL的方式发生
:param mail_to_list: 收件人列表
:param subject: 邮件主题
:param content: 邮件正文
:param file_name_list: 附近的文件路径列表
:return:
"""
if is_ssl:
smtp = smtplib.SMTP_SSL(self.smtp_server, self.smtp_port)
else:
smtp = smtplib.SMTP(self.smtp_server, self.smtp_port)
smtp.ehlo(name='foxmail')
# 调用login时,如果没有调用过 echlo 会自动调用该方法,但是默认使用的name为计算机名
# 如果计算机名有中文,就会返回503方法未实现的异常
smtp.login(self.mail_from, self.password)
msg = MIMEMultipart()
msg['From'] = self.mail_from
msg['To'] = COMMASPACE.join(mail_to_list)
msg['Date'] = formatdate(localtime=True)
msg['Subject'] = subject
# 如果 content 是 html,则需要设置 _subtype='html'
# 默认情况下 _subtype='plain',即纯文本
msg.attach(MIMEText(content, _charset='utf-8'))
for fn in file_name_list:
part = MIMEText(open(fn, 'rb').read(), 'base64', 'utf-8')
part["Content-Type"] = 'application/octet-stream'
basename = os.path.basename(fn)
if PY2:
basename = basename.encode('gb2312')
# 文件名使用 gb2312 编码,否则会没有附件
part.add_header('Content-Disposition', 'attachment', filename=('gb2312', '', basename))
msg.attach(part)
smtp.sendmail(self.mail_from, mail_to_list, msg.as_string())
smtp.close()
def main():
handler = EmailHandler('mail_from@example.com', 'password', 'smtp.example.com', 465)
mail_to_list = ['example@test.com']
subject = 'Python 发送邮件测试'
content = '这是用 Python 自动发送的邮件,请勿回复'
# 附件存放在当前文件夹
file_name_list = ['test.rar']
handler.send_mail_ssl(mail_to_list, subject, content, file_name_list)
print('邮件发送成功')
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()